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从独立到依附:阿里王朝时期埃及经济发展道路的转换与探索

作者:李芳洲 出版日期:2023年12月 报告页数:23 页 报告大小: 报告字数:28467 字 所属图书:中东研究 2023年第2期(总第87期) 浏览人数: 下载人数:

文章摘要:在埃及现代化发展进程中,阿里王朝时期的经济发展道路既是埃及融入现代世界体系的产物,也是其谋求经济独立创新发展的探索。由于不同时期对世界市场经济的反应不同,埃及在不同时期形成了不同的现代化发展道路。穆罕默德·阿里实施强制性现代化,推动进口替代,以埃及帝国体系对抗西方资本主义体系;伊斯梅尔的欧洲化改革,使埃及放弃了自给自足,大踏步地融入世界体系;英国占领时期,埃及经济在世界体系中逐渐边缘化,但也催生了埃及民族资产阶级并开始探索经济自主与独... 展开

文章摘要:在埃及现代化发展进程中,阿里王朝时期的经济发展道路既是埃及融入现代世界体系的产物,也是其谋求经济独立创新发展的探索。由于不同时期对世界市场经济的反应不同,埃及在不同时期形成了不同的现代化发展道路。穆罕默德·阿里实施强制性现代化,推动进口替代,以埃及帝国体系对抗西方资本主义体系;伊斯梅尔的欧洲化改革,使埃及放弃了自给自足,大踏步地融入世界体系;英国占领时期,埃及经济在世界体系中逐渐边缘化,但也催生了埃及民族资产阶级并开始探索经济自主与独立之路。虽然自由主义时代经济民族主义的实践推动了埃及现代民族工业发展,但外国商业精英依旧在埃及经济中占据主导地位。这些发展道路最终都宣告了不同程度的失败,它们不仅未能使埃及实现复兴,反而将之带入边缘化的依附境地。综观阿里王朝时期埃及与现代世界体系的互动,其利弊更多取决于不同时期国家与企业家对世界市场的回应能力。

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Abstract:In the course of Egyptian modernization,the economic development way in the Ali Dynasty resulted from the combination of Egypt into the world economy system and explored the economic independence and innovation as well. Due to different reactions to the world economy in varied periods,the different modernization development way took shape. Mohammad Ali forcibly carried out the policy of modernization,propelling up the importation s... 展开

Abstract:In the course of Egyptian modernization,the economic development way in the Ali Dynasty resulted from the combination of Egypt into the world economy system and explored the economic independence and innovation as well. Due to different reactions to the world economy in varied periods,the different modernization development way took shape. Mohammad Ali forcibly carried out the policy of modernization,propelling up the importation substitute with the Empire of Egypt against the Western capitalism. Isimail Europeanization reform rendered the country to give up self-supply and stepped into the integration of the world system. During the period of British occupation,Egypt fell in the marginalization position in the world system but Egyptian national bourgeoisie set out to explore the economic autonomy and independence. Although the economic nationalism practice in the liberalism era promoted the development of Egyptian modern national industry,foreign business elites dominated the country’s economy. The development ways finally ended up with failure,to a various degree,not only failing to revive Egypt but also marginalizing it into the dependent position. From the reaction between Egypt in the times of the Ali Dynasty and the world system,the pros and cons are decided by the country’s and entrepreneurs’ reactions to the world market.

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作者简介

李芳洲:李芳洲,西北大学中东研究所博士研究生,内蒙古民族大学旅游与历史文化学院副教授。