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韩国“私教育”治理:历程、措施、启示与镜鉴

作者:王瑞 出版日期:2023年12月 报告页数:15 页 报告大小: 报告字数:14313 字 所属丛书:复旦大学韩国研究丛书 所属图书:韩国研究论丛 总第四十三辑(2022年第一辑) 浏览人数: 下载人数:

文章摘要:在韩国,校外培训被称为“私教育”。从20世纪60年代末至今,“私教育热”一直是韩国政府重点关注的教育问题,相关治理政策接连出台,其治理过程中的理念也从“禁止”为主转变为“疏导”为主。在诸多治理措施中,“放学后学校计划”“幼儿Nuri课程计划”以减轻家庭负担为重点,“高中学分银行”“学生簿综合招生制度”“小学托管教室”“大学自主招生制度”着力缓解选考压力,限定培训机构最高收费、建立立法巡查制度致力于强化对培训机构的监管,“EBS在线课程教材”“优... 展开

文章摘要:在韩国,校外培训被称为“私教育”。从20世纪60年代末至今,“私教育热”一直是韩国政府重点关注的教育问题,相关治理政策接连出台,其治理过程中的理念也从“禁止”为主转变为“疏导”为主。在诸多治理措施中,“放学后学校计划”“幼儿Nuri课程计划”以减轻家庭负担为重点,“高中学分银行”“学生簿综合招生制度”“小学托管教室”“大学自主招生制度”着力缓解选考压力,限定培训机构最高收费、建立立法巡查制度致力于强化对培训机构的监管,“EBS在线课程教材”“优惠入学政策”“城乡教师流动制度”助力国民教育机会公平,教师教育提质、增加教育经费投入、鼓励自主学习、“高中阶段提质补差”等政策则在提高学校教育质量层面发挥作用。中韩两国虽国情不同,但在文化传统、教育模式、选考制度等方面多有相似之处,又同样面临着校外培训治理的历史性难题;目前,我国“双减”政策落地实施方兴未艾,总结韩国私教育治理的经验与教训,或可为我国“双减”工作的宏观战略与具体措施提供必要的镜鉴与启示。

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Abstract:In ROK,out of school training is called “private education”. Since the late 1960s,“private education fever” has been the focus of the government. Relevant policies have been issued one after another,and the governance concept has changed from “Prohibition” to “Dredging”. In many governance measures,“after school school plan” and “children Nuri curriculum plan” focus on reducing the burden on families;“High school cre... 展开

Abstract:In ROK,out of school training is called “private education”. Since the late 1960s,“private education fever” has been the focus of the government. Relevant policies have been issued one after another,and the governance concept has changed from “Prohibition” to “Dredging”. In many governance measures,“after school school plan” and “children Nuri curriculum plan” focus on reducing the burden on families;“High school credit bank”,“student book comprehensive enrollment system”,“primary school trusteeship classroom” and “University Independent Enrollment System” focus on alleviating the pressure of selective examination;Limit the maximum charge of training institutions,establish a legislative inspection system,and strive to strengthen the supervision of training institutions;“EBS electronic textbook”,“preferential enrollment policy” and “teacher mobility system” are conducive to promoting educational equity;Policies such as improving the quality of teacher education,increasing investment in education funds,encouraging autonomous learning,and “improving the quality of high school to make up for the poor” play a role in improving the quality of school education. Although China and ROK have different national conditions,they have similarities in education mode,cultural tradition and examination system. At present,they are also facing the problem of governance of out of school training. The implementation of China’s “double reduction” policy is in the ascendant. We summarize the governance experience and teaching of ROK’s “private education”. It may provide necessary mirror and Enlightenment for the macro strategy and specific measures of China’s “double reduction” work.

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作者简介

王瑞:王瑞,中南民族大学教育学院博士研究生,主要从事教育理论与政策研究。