Abstract:Africa is an important partner of China’s “Belt and Road” initiative，and China-Africa cooperation plays an important role in the “Belt and Road” initiative. As an aid project with the longest duration，the largest number of dispatched personnel，and the greatest influence，China-Africa health cooperation is the highlight. For more than half a century，China-Africa health cooperation has been constantly innovating and developing，and has achieved fruitful results. At the same time，it is also facing many opportunities and challenges. It is necessary to promote the transformation and upgrading of China-Africa health cooperation，and to build a China-Africa “Community of Common Health”. It is important for public health security in China and Africa，and also significant for maintaining global public health security and for building a global community of common health.