Abstract:In 2019，conflict and reconciliation coexist in Syria. On the one hand，with the evolution of the great power game of “US retreating and Russia advancing into Syria”，the Syrian government forces led the battlefield trend with the support of Russia and Iran allies，and positive signals appeared in domestic and international political reconciliation. The Syrian government and people began to rebuild their homes. On the other hand，the withdrawal of U.S. troops and the invasion of Turkey have led to the re-division of forces from all sides. The situation of cooperation and contradiction between foreign and regional powers is still complicated. The conflict in northern Syria has escalated. Violence and resistance movements in southern Syria have occurred from time to time. With the warming of relations between Arab countries and Bashar regime and the convening of Syria’s Constitutional Council，Syria’s political reconciliation process has taken an important step forward amid twists and turns. However，it should also be noted that the national identity crisis，ethnic tensions，structural geopolitical conflicts and non-traditional security threats brought about by years of civil strife in Syria will restrict the reconciliation process. In addition，the remnants of opposition and extremist organizations entrenched in Idlib will hold up their resistance. Syria’s political reconciliation is facing “internal and external troubles” and is still on the way.