Abstract:The polar region is located in the high latitudes of the earth. Due to its unique environmentand importance in the global climate change，it has attracted international attention. In recent years，with global warming，rising sea levels，and frequent disasters，the polar environment and climate change issues have received unprecedented attention from all countries. The interaction between the polar environment and global climate change not only involves environmental and scientific issues，but also involves security，energy，economy，and politics. This article takes the polar environment and climate change as the entry point，sorts out the work carried out by major countries in the strategic layout，scientific research，economic development，and international cooperative governance，and summarizes the achievements of China’s polar affairs from the perspective of scientific and technological innovation and polar expedition activities，and finally puts forward suggestions to support for responding to the climate change and the sustainable development of the polar environment.