China and Iran maintain a long friendly economic relation. The promotion of Sino-Iranian relations to the “comprehensive strategic partnership” is the expression of the willingness of the two countries to enhance strategic mutual trust and deepen mutually beneficial cooperation. China and Iran have complementary advantages. Iran's economic stability depends on China's support. The smooth progress of China's “the Belt and Road” Initiative requires Iran's cooperation and participation. China and Iran share some economic interests under “the Belt and Road” framework. Taking the construction of“the Belt and Road” as an opportunity，the bilateral cooperation in the economic field has made pragmatic progress and the strategic partnership has deepened. However，the two countries still face many challenges in developing economic strategic partnerships. It is urgent to further strengthen policy communication about policies and cooperation consensus，with a view to seeking progress in the midst of change，promoting regional economic harmony and stability，and achieving win-win development.