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中国对伊拉克问题的外交政策

作者:刘中民 范鹏 出版日期:2015年08月 报告页数:24 页 报告大小: 报告字数:23887 字 所属丛书: 所属图书:中东问题研究 2015年第1期 (总...

文章摘要

  

本文中的伊拉克问题包括两伊战争、海湾危机、海湾战争、伊拉克战争、伊拉克战后重建、“伊斯兰国”问题等一系列国际热点问题。第一,中国对两伊战争的外交政策,主要包括:不断在两伊之间“促谈劝和”,告诫两伊防止超级大国干涉;一直积极支持和配合联合国秘书长的调解努力,在联合国框架内积极促进有关两伊问题的解决。第二,中国对海湾危机和海湾战争的外交政策,主要包括:积极做伊拉克及有关各方的外交工作,为争取和平做不懈努力;坚决反对伊拉克入侵科威特,但同时反对大国军事介入海湾事务。第三,中国对伊拉克战争和战后重建的外交政策,主要包括:在战争爆发前,中国力图在联合国框架内政治解决伊拉克危机,为阻止战争爆发付出了不懈的努力;在战争进行的过程中,中国既坚持反战的既有立场,但并未参加反战阵营,体现了原则性与策略性相结合的外交艺术;在战争结束后,中国积极通过双边和多边渠道参与伊拉克战后重建,履行了负责任大国的国际义务;面对美国撤军后伊拉克陷入政治危机,极端组织“伊斯兰国”(IS)攻城略地,中国积极支持伊拉克实现政治和解和打击“伊斯兰国”的反恐努力。总之,中国对伊拉克问题的外交政策体现了中国处理国际热点问题的外交理念和外交方针。伊拉克问题本身的性质及其发展变化、国际格局和中东地区格局的变化、中国外交政策的基本原则和中国总体外交战略的调整,构成了影响中国对伊拉克问题外交政策的主要变量。

Abstract

  

The Iraqi issues discussed here include a series of international hot agenda,such as the Iran-Iraq war,the Gulf Crisis,the Gulf War,the Iraq War,post-war reconstruction of Iraq,“Islamic State” and so on. Firstly,China’s policy on Iran-Iraq war mainly includes “to promote peace talks” unceasingly between the Iraq and Iran,and to persuade both of them prevent superpower intervening. China has been actively supporting and cooperating with the UN secretary general’s mediation efforts,and promoting peaceful solution to the war under the UN framework. Secondly,China’s foreign policy on Gulf Crisis and Gulf War were composed of several aspects,including continual efforts for peace through persuading Iraq and the sides concerned;and appeal against the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and great powers intervention in Gulf affairs by force. Thirdly,China’s foreign policy on Iraq War and the postwar reconstruction can be divided into three stages. Before the war broke out,China tried to solve the Iraq crisis politically under UN framework. During the war,China held her anti-war position,but didn’t participate in anti-war camp,thus embodying a diplomatic art which combined both principles and strategy. By the end of the war,China has actively participated bilateral and multilateral cooperation of reconstruction,and carried out a responsible power’s obligations. After U.S. troops left Iraq,Iraq was in political crisis and IS occupied many cities,China then actively supported the political reconciliation and counter-terrorist efforts. In short,the main factors which affected China’s foreign policy on Iraq are related to the nature of the Iraq issues and their development,the change of international and Middle East situation,the basic principles of China’s foreign policy,and the adjustment of China’s overall diplomatic strategy.

作者简介

刘中民:刘中民,上海外国语大学中东研究所教授、博士生导师

范鹏:范鹏,华东政法大学外国语学院讲师,上海外国语大学中东研究所博士研究生(上海,200083)。