Abstract:State-owned financial capital is the capital and corresponding rights and interests that the state and its authorized investment entities contribute directly，or indirectly，to financial institutions. Since banks are the main part of China’s financial system，from the perspective of layout，most of state-owned financial capital is distributed in the banking industry，where policy banks and five large-scale state-owned banks are the main centers. From the perspective of function，state-owned financial capital has played a key role in serving the real economy，preventing financial risks，and promoting financial reforms. However，there are still outstanding problems in the current state-owned financial capital management system of the banking industry that the overall layout needs to be further optimized and the management system，authorized operations，and the matching mechanism of rights and responsibilities need to be improved. Although the corporate governance structure of banking financial institutions has been formed，the situation，“Unworthy of the name”，is pretty prominent. To solve the problems above，this paper focuses on：（i）managing capital as the core and improving the efficiency of state-owned financial capital management；（ii）improving the control of state-owned financial capital and optimizing the strategic layout of state-owned financial capital；（iii）concentrating on improving the corporate governance structure and enhancing the vitality of state-owned financial institutions in the banking industry.